Legislated gender quotas for local governments, 1 January 2021

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Country Name

Type of electoral system

Type of gender quota

Sanctions for non-compliance

Additional information on quota

Albania

Proportional

representation (closed list) for municipal

councils and

indirect elections for regional

councils

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

- Rejection of candidate list
- Fine: up to one tenth of the state funds for the electoral campaign until the violation is rectified.

- For each electoral zone, at least 30% of the multi-name list and one of the first three names on the multi-name list shall belong to each gender.

- For elections for local government bodies, for each municipal council, one in every two consecutive names in ranking shall belong to the same gender.

- The municipal council must elect its own representatives to the regional council, of whom not less than 50% shall belong to the underrepresented gender.

- Appointments of vice-mayors, regional vice-heads and regional boards have to comply with the requirement of having at least 30% representation for each gender.

- In case of non-compliance, the Central Election Commission imposes a fine on the respective political parties of up to 1/10 of the state fund for the financing of the election campaign, until the violation is rectified, and with a refusal of the political party’s list of the candidates for municipal council elections.

Algeria

Proportional

representation (closed list)

Candidate quota (partial, applies only to municipalities of over 20,000 inhabitants)

Rejection of

candidate list

- Candidate lists for the elections of the provincial people's assemblies must be composed of at least:

·       30% women candidates, when the total number of assembly seats is 35, 39, 43, or 47 seats;

·       35% women candidates, when the total number of assembly seats is 51 to 55 seats.

- Candidate lists for the elections of the municipal people's assemblies must be composed of at least 30% women candidates, for municipal people's assemblies located in the chief towns of the districts, and within the municipalities with a population greater than 20,000 inhabitants.

- Candidate lists in violation of the above quota provisions are rejected and a limited period of time is granted for the revision of rejected lists to be in conformity with the above quota provisions.

Argentina

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota (with ranking/

placement rule only in the communes of Buenos Aires)

Rejection of candidate list

- Each candidate list must be composed of a minimum of 30% of women.

- In the city of Buenos Aires, 1 in 3 candidates on the list must be of different sex.

- Lists that do not meet these requirements will not be made official.

Armenia

Mixed system:

- Majority/

plurality (single non-transferable vote) for communities of under 4,000 inhabitants;
- Proportional representation (closed list) for communities of over 4,000 inhabitants

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (partial, applies only to communities elected by proportional representation)

Rejection of candidate list

- Until January 1st, 2022, for the election of the community councils of over 4,000 inhabitants, the number of representatives of each sex in any quartet (1-4, 1-8, 1-12, etc.) and so on until the end of the list, from the first number of the electoral list of each of the parties, shall not exceed 75%. Afterwards, the number of representatives of each sex in any trio until the end of the list shall not exceed 70%.

- In case of inaccuracies in the submitted documents, the party has 48 hours to eliminate the inaccuracies, or else the registration of the electoral list is rejected.

- For the election of the community councils of over 4,000 inhabitants, if all seats in the party go to members of the same sex, the mandate of the last candidate in the order of the list is given to the candidate with the lowest number of the unrepresented gender on the list, if any.

Bangladesh

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats (partial, apply only to municipal, city, union, subdistrict and district councils)

 

- The following seats in each local deliberative body are reserved for women:

·       District Council: 5 seats; and 1/3 of the Chairperson’s Office

·       Subdistrict Council: 1/3 of the total number of Union Councils and Municipal Corporations in every Subdistrict is equivalent to the number of seats reserved for women; and 1/2 of the Chairperson’s Office

·       Union Council: 3 seats; and 1/3 of the Chairperson’s Office

·       Municipal Council: 1/3 of the total number of Union Councils and Municipal Corporations in every Subdistrict is equivalent to the number of seats reserved for women; and 1/3 of the Chairperson’s Office

·       City Council: 1/3 of the total number of Union Councils and Municipal Corporations in every Subdistrict is equivalent to the number of seats reserved for women; and 1/3 of the Chairperson’s Office.

Belgium

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- For local deliberative body elections, political parties must present nominees of different sexes, in alternating order. If the list comprises an odd number of nominees, the final spot on the list is open to a candidate of either sex.

- For local executive bodies, the majority coalition of the deliberative body must present nominees of different sexes, in alternating order. If the list comprises an odd number of nominees, the final spot on the list is open to a candidate of either sex.  One of the two top positions on each list should be reserved for a woman nominee.

- If a list does not comply with the aforementioned quotas, the list will be rejected.

Bolivia (Pluri-national State of)

Mixed system:

- Mixed system: majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) and proportional representation (closed list) for departmental level;

- Proportional representation (closed list) for municipal level

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Party lists for deliberative body elections must alternate between listing of female and male candidates, successively.

- For the uninominal candidate lists within departmental assembly elections, at least 50% of the total nominees across all single-member wards must be women.

- Failure to comply with these quota provisions will result in the rejection of the respective party list, in which case the political organization will be notified, and the list must be amended within 72 hours of this notification.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Every candidate list for deliberative body elections must have at least a 40% representation of both genders. The minority gender candidates shall be distributed on the candidates' list in the following manner: at least one minority gender candidate amongst the first two candidates, two minority gender candidates amongst the first five candidates, and three minority gender candidates amongst the first eight candidates, et seq.

- If an electoral list does not follow this quota, the Central Election Commission can reject the respective list if not revised within five days of notification.

Brazil

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota

No

- For the municipal council elections, each candidate list must consist of 30-70% of each gender.

Burkina Faso

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

No, but additional funding for political parties achieving or exceeding quota

- For municipal council elections, any list of candidatures submitted by a political party must include at least 30% candidates of each sex.

- Each list of candidates presented for legislative or municipal elections must alternate between women and men or men and women for the first 2/3 of the list. The alternate positioning applies to both the list of incumbents and that of substitutes.

- Any political party, coalition of political parties, or coalition of independent candidates that complies with the provisions of this law shall receive additional public funding for the electoral campaign. The additional public funding represents 20% of the total amount allocated by the State for the financing of the electoral campaign.

Burundi

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule. In case of gender imbalance in the results, the EMB corrects it.

No

- The municipal council must be composed of at least 30% women.

- For three consecutive candidates, at least one must be a woman.

- The municipal council board must have at least 30% women. In addition, at least 1/3 of the municipal administrators must be women nationwide.

- In the event that the composition of a municipal council does not reflect the gender diversity of the electorate, the Independent National Electoral Commission corrects the imbalances according to the method of the strongest remainder. The Independent National Electoral Commission may order the co-optation to the council of persons from an under-represented gender, provided that the persons thus co-opted do not constitute no more than one fifth of the members of the council.

- In the event of a vacancy, the municipal councilor is replaced in priority by the candidate of the same ethnicity and gender who is in an adequate position on the list.

Cabo Verde

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- For the municipal assembly and the municipal chamber elections, there must be a minimum representation of 40% of each sex in the candidacy lists. The first two places on the plurinominal candidacy lists must be occupied by candidates of different sex, and no more than two candidates of the same sex may be placed consecutively in the ranking of the remaining places on the lists.

- If the list does not comply with the provisions of the law, the list may be rejected.

- The State's electoral subsidy shall be awarded to political parties or coalitions of political parties and candidacies presented by groups of citizens whose lists are elected at municipal level with at 25% of female candidates.

Central African Republic

Mixed system:

- Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) for regional councils;
- Proportional representation (closed list) for municipal councils

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- As a transitional measure valid until 2026, for electoral mandates and elective offices, a minimum quota of 35% of women is required on the basis of competency.

- After the transitional period, for electoral mandates and elective offices, candidatures must be presented in equal numbers of male and female candidates. When the number of candidates of both sexes is odd, the parity applies to the even lower number.  For nominative functions, candidatures are given the basis of numerical equality between men and women.

- In case of non-compliance, the list is declared non-valid.

Chad

Mixed system: majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) and proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota

No

- At the provincial level, lists must comply with the quota of at least 30% women.

Colombia

Proportional representation (open or closed list)

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- Candidate lists for deliberative bodies of more than five seats must be composed of at least 30% of each gender.

- Candidate lists that do not comply with the gender quota requirement are rejected.

Comoros

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- A candidate list must be composed of nominees alternating by two candidates of one sex and one candidate of the other to be receivable by the Island Electoral Commission.

- Candidates on the rejected list have 24 hours to seize the Constitution Court, which will give its decision within five days. If no decision is given in that delay, the list is not rejected.

Congo

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

No

- Women must represent at least 30% of nominees on each submitted party list. Out of every three consecutive nominees on a list, one must be a woman.

Costa Rica

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- All candidate lists and elected bodies are composed of 50% women and 50% men; the difference between total men and women cannot be greater than one.

- All candidate lists alternate so that two candidates of the same sex are not listed consecutively.

- The General Directorate of the Electoral Registry will reject the candidate lists that violate the above stipulations.

Côte d'Ivoire

Proportional representation (closed list with majority bonus)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- A minimum of 30% of women out of the total number of candidates presented during the electoral consultation is required.

- Any list of candidates must respect the alternation of the sexes so that if two candidates of the same sex are entered, the third is of the other sex.

- Any list whose composition of the file does not comply with the aforementioned provisions is rejected by the Commission responsible for elections. The political party or group has three days to seize the Council of State, which in turn has three days to issue a decision. If the Council of State does not make a decision within the time limit, the application must be registered.

- Any political party or political grouping whose list reaches at least 50% of women candidates benefits from additional public funding.

Djibouti

Proportional representation (closed list with majority bonus)

Candidate quota

No

- For regional and municipal council elections, each list must contain a proportion of one or the other sex equivalent to at least 10% of the seats to be filled.

Dominican Republic

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- The Central Electoral Board will not admit a list of candidacies for popularly elected offices containing less than 40% and more than 60% of men and women

- The running mates of mayors and directors should be of the opposite gender.

Ecuador

Mixed system:

-  Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) in single-member constituencies;
- Proportional representation (closed list) in multi-member constituencies

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (partial, applies only to multi-member constituencies)

Rejection of candidate list

- In candidate lists for multi-member constituencies, there must be parity and alternation between women and men.

- Lists that do not strictly maintain equity, parity, and alternation between women and men will be denied registry.

El Salvador

Proportional representation (closed list with majority bonus)

Candidate quota

- Lists that do not comply can be fined;

- Political parties must correct the infraction

- Political parties must each submit a candidate list for the municipal council election which contains at least 30% women nominees.

- If a political party fails to meet the respective quota, the party will be sanctioned with fines (fifteen to fifty-five monthly minimum wages in force for the commerce sector and services) by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal and must rectify the quota infraction within 15 days.

France

Mixed system:

- Proportional representation (closed list with majority bonus) for regional level;
- Majority/

plurality (binominal two-round system) for departmental level;
- Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) for municipalities of under 1,000 inhabitants;

- Proportional representation (closed list) for municipalities with over 1,000 inhabitants

Candidate quota (with ranking/

placement rule only for regions and municipalities)

Rejection of candidate list

- For regional council elections, each list must be composed of candidates alternating by sex.

- For regional permanent commission elections, each regional councilor or group of councilors submits a list of candidates; each list must be composed of candidates alternating by sex.

- For general council elections, voters elect two members of different sexes per canton to the departmental assembly; candidates present themselves in pairs on a tandem ballot.

- For municipal council elections, each list must be composed of candidates alternating by sex.

- In case of non-compliance, the list is rejected and given 72 hours to rectify.

Gambia (Republic of the)

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats for appointed representatives of special groups

 

- If more than 2/3 of elected local deliberative body members are male, then a women’s representative is proposed from amongst local social and commercial interest groups. The women’s representative is nominated by the council chairperson, pending approval of the Secretary of State.

Georgia

Mixed system: majority/

plurality (single non-transferable vote) and proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (partial, applies only to candidates elected by proportional representation system)

Rejection of candidate list

- Until 2028, one in every two candidates on the submitted list is of the opposite sex.

- Until 2028, lists that do not respect gender balance will be given 3 days to rectify, or else will be rejected.

- Maintaining gender balance is related to additional funding provided by the Organic Law of Georgia on Citizens’ Political Associations.

Greece

Proportional representation (open list with majority bonus)

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- According to 2021 legislative changes, candidate lists must be composed of at least 40% candidates of each gender.

- Lists that do not comply with the gender quota are inadmissible.

Guinea

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota

No

- All assemblies of deliberative organs cannot be composed of more than two thirds (2/3) of individuals of the same gender.

- 5% of the state funding for political parties will be proportionally distributed to parties that have elected women in the municipal deliberative bodies.

Haiti

Majority/

plurality (party block vote)

Candidate quota

No, but reduced registration fee for parties with targeted proportion of women

- The list of candidates submitted to the Provisional Electoral Council by associations, for each elective office, must contain at least 30% women.

- For the municipal section assembly elections, if there are:

·       5 total elected representatives, at least two have to be women;

·       7 total elected representatives, at least three have to be women;

·       9 total elected representatives, at least three have to be women.

- For the municipal council, municipal assembly, and board of directors of the municipal section elections, each cartel had to present at least one woman candidate to be elected.

- The associations that register at least 30% of women benefit from a 40% discount on registration fees.

Honduras

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

- Rejection of candidate list;
- Fine: violation by Political Parties to comply with the policy of gender equality will be sanctioned with a fine equivalent to 5% of political debt.

- For municipal corporation elections, alternation will be applicable to the entire list of nominees, from the first to the last position, in such a way that if the list starts with the mayor that is a woman, the vice-mayor will be a man and vice versa, and so on until the list is completed. If the list is composed of an odd number of candidates, the last position is at the discretion of the internal movement/political party.

- Failure to apply the principle of parity and the alternation mechanism in the choice of authorities will result in the non-recognition of party authorities by the Supreme Electoral Court.

- Failure to comply with the Principle of Parity and the Alternation Mechanism in observance of these regulations, will generate as a sanction by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal, the non-registration of:

a) One or more of the lists of candidates of the internal movements of the political parties or the movement as such, to participate in primary elections;

b) The political party that does not hold primary elections, or of one or more of its lists of candidates;

c) The Independent Candidacy;

d) The Alliance, or one or more of its lists of candidates.

India

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats

 

- At least 1/3 of the total council seats (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the castes and tribes) must be reserved for women; seats may be allotted by rotation to different council constituencies.

- At least 1/3 of the seats reserved for members of scheduled castes and tribes must be reserved for women.

- At least 1/3 of the total number of chairperson’s office members amongst local councils must be reserved for women; seats may be allotted by rotation.

Indonesia

Mixed system:

- Proportional representation (open list) for provincial, regency and city level;

-  Majority/

plurality for village level

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (partial, applies only to candidates elected by proportional representation)

Rejection of candidate list

- For local deliberative bodies in the provinces, regencies, and cities, each party list consists of at least 30% women nominees.

- One out of every three nominees on the list is a woman.

- The respective election commission will verify each list for the fulfillment of this quota, otherwise, a list may be returned and/or rejected.

Iraq

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota with corrective measures to ensure targeted women’s representation

No

- In governorate and district council elections, the seats are distributed among the candidates of the list according to the number of votes they obtained.

- However, irrespective of the number of votes obtained, after three candidates elected being men, the fourth seat will go to a woman even if it should go to a man. Overall, women’s representation should reach 25%.

Italy

Proportional representation (open list with majority bonus)

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- Municipalities with a population of over 5,000 inhabitants: the representation of both sexes is ensured in the lists of candidates; neither sex can be represented by more than two thirds of the candidates. Each elector can express one or two preference votes. If the voter expresses two preferences, they must concern candidates of different sexes from the same list. In case of non-compliance, the second preference will not be taken into account.

- In the municipal committees of municipalities with a population of over 3,000 inhabitants, each sex must be represented by at least 40% of members.

- Provinces and the metropolitan cities: neither of the sexes can represent more than 60% of the candidates on a given coalition list. In case of non-compliance, the electoral office deletes the names of candidates belonging to the most represented sex, proceeding from the last on the list, in order to ensure compliance with the provision referred to in the first sentence. The list which, following the cancellation of the excess candidates, contains a number of candidates lower than the minimum required is inadmissible.

Jordan

Majority/

plurality (block vote)

Reserved seats

 

- In the governorate council, at least 10% of the elected members and at least 1/3 of the appointed members must be women.

- An additional 10% of the number of seats allocated for the Governorate Council’s elected members shall be reserved for women, to be filled by the candidates with the highest number of votes who did not win a seat in the governorate.

- In the Greater Amman Municipal Council, at least 25% of the members from the local councils must be women.

- In the municipal council, at least 25% of council seats are allocated to women. If the municipal area is not divided into localities, at least 25% of municipal council seats are allocated to women elected within the general municipal elections. If there are not enough women candidates, then women are appointed by the central government from amongst the municipal electorate.

- In the local council, women are allocated one reserved seat. If there are no women amongst the candidates, then women are appointed by the central government from amongst the local electorate.

Kazakhstan

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- In each constituency-based list, the number of women and persons under the age of twenty-nine must be at least 30% of the total number of candidates.

- Lists that violate the rules of submission will not be registered. They have seven days to appeal to a higher election commission.

Kenya

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats through special lists for women and marginalized groups (that alternate between women and men)

No

- Not more than 2/3 of the members of any county assembly or county executive committee can be of the same gender.

- The party lists for reserved seats for the underrepresented gender and for marginalized groups shall contain alternates between men and women candidates in the priority in which they are listed.

- For the purpose of designating representatives of the underrepresented gender, the Commission shall draw from the list such a number of special seat members in the order given by the party, necessary to ensure that no more than two-thirds of the membership of the assembly is of the same gender.

- For the purpose of designating representatives of marginalized groups, the Commission shall draw four special seat members in the order given by the party.

- Reserved seat members are nominated by political parties in proportion to the number of seats received in the local deliberative body election by each political party. The number of reserved seats is determined after the declaration of elected members from each ward.

- The allocation of seats by the Commission shall be proportional to the number of seats won by the party in the traditional ward-based election.

Kyrgyzstan

Mixed system:

- Proportional representation (closed list) for city councils, the council of Osh, and the council of Bishkek;
- Majority/

plurality (block vote) for village councils

- Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule for city councils, council of Osh and Council of Bishkek;
- Reserved seats for village councils

No

- When forming lists of candidates for the city council, Council of Osh, and Council of Bishkek elections, political parties cannot have more than 70% of candidates of the same gender.

- The difference in priority of women and men within candidate lists should not exceed two positions.

- For carrying out elections of deputies of ayylny keneshes not less than 30% of mandates of deputies of the ayylny kenesh for women on each ayylny kenesh are reserved.

Lesotho

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats

 

- In the municipal, urban, and community councils, 1/3 of the total seats are reserved for women. 1/3 of the total electoral divisions within each council area are reserved for women by rotation, but such rotation should not exceed two terms of office.

Liberia

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats for appointed representatives of special groups

 

- In the county council, there is one reserved seat for a representative to be appointed from the county women’s organization.

- Additionally, one of the two appointed youth representatives and one of the two appointed civil society association representatives must be women.

Libya

Majority/

plurality (block vote)

Reserved seats

 

- Each municipal council should include at least one woman member. Seats designated for women are filled by the candidates for this category who win the highest number of votes, in addition to the seats that they may obtain from obtaining the highest number of votes in the general seat contest.

Mali

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Candidate lists with more than three nominees will be rejected if the list is composed of more than 70% of either sex.

- Candidate lists must respect the alternation of the sexes in the following way: if two candidacies of the same sex are registered consecutively, the third candidate must be of the other sex.

Mauritania

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota

- Rejection of candidate list;

- Financial incentives for political parties achieving quota

- For regional council elections, there must be at least two women candidates for regional councils with 11 members, three women candidates for regional councils with 15 members, four women candidates for regional councils with 21 members, and five women candidates for regional councils with more than 21 members.

- For municipal council elections, women are entitled to at least 20% of the municipal council seats. Therefore, under the penalty of inadmissibility, candidate lists for municipal elections must include at least two women candidates for municipal councils with 9-11 members, three women candidates for municipal councils with 15-17 members, and four women candidates for municipal councils with 19 or more members.

- Political parties which elect women in accordance with these quotas can obtain a financial incentive under the conditions defined by a joint order of the Ministers of the Interior and Finance.

Mauritius

Majority/

plurality (block vote)

Candidate quota

No

- For city, town, and village council elections, each group presenting more than two candidates for election must ensure that not more than two-thirds of the group’s candidates are of the same sex.

Mexico

Mixed system: proportional representation (closed list) and majority/

plurality (single non-transferable vote)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Candidate lists must respect gender parity and be composed of candidates listed alternating by sex.

- If the lists do not comply with parity, the Local Public Bodies will have the power to reject the registration of candidates that do not respect the principle. Lists are given a non-extendable period of time to replace these candidates or the list is rejected.

Mongolia

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post or block vote)

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- At least 20% of the candidates nominated by a party or coalition shall be candidates of one sex.

- Registration of a candidate shall be refused If the requirements for candidates specified in this law have not been met. In case of refusal to register a candidate, he/she may submit his/her request for re-registration together with the required documents to the respective level election committee at least 25 days prior to the polling day.

Montenegro

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- There shall be at least 30% of candidates on the candidate list from the underrepresented sex.

- Among every four candidates in the candidate list order (the first four places, the second four places and so on until the end of the list) there shall be at least one candidate who is a member of the underrepresented sex.

- The list will be rejected by the election commission if it does not meet the above quota.

Morocco

Mixed systems:

- Proportional representation (closed list) for regional councils and municipal councils of over 35,000 inhabitants;)
-Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) for municipal councils of under 35,000 inhabitants;

- Mixed system: indirect elections through proportional representation (closed list) or majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) for provincial and prefectural councils

Reserved seats (partial, apply only to regions and municipalities)

 

- For regional council elections, at least 1/3 of seats in each electoral division are reserved for women; women can also contest for the other 2/3 of seats.

- For municipal council elections using the proportional electoral system, six seats are reserved for women in municipalities with 200,000 or less which are not divided into boroughs. For municipalities not divided into boroughs, with a population of 200,000 or more, eight seats are reserved for women. For municipalities divided into boroughs, three seats per borough are reserved for women.

- For municipal elections using the majority electoral system, four seats are reserved for women.

Namibia

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota

No

- Each candidate list must contain at least three women in village councils or in a municipal/town council with ten or less members; and at least five women in a municipal/town council with 11 or more members.

Nepal

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats

 

- In the local deliberative body, two of the four members elected from each ward must be women, one of which must be a Dalit woman.

- In the local executive body, five seats (in an urban municipal executive body) or four seats (in a rural municipal executive body) are reserved for women members elected by and from the deliberative body.

- Parties that submit candidates for both mayor and deputy mayor (or rural municipal executive head and deputy head) must ensure that one of the two candidates is a woman.

Nicaragua

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

No

- The political parties or alliances of parties that participate in the Municipal Elections must present in their lists of candidates 50% of men and 50% of women ordered equally and presented alternately.

- If that is not the case, the Supreme Electoral Council will require each of the political parties or alliance of political parties, to invert the man-woman, woman-man order in the necessary elected formulas to ensure the relationship of gender equality mandated by law.

- If any political party or alliance of political parties does not make or refuses to make the indicated adjustments to ensure the woman-man relationship required by law in the final lists of the declaration of elected candidates, then it will be the obligation of the Supreme Council Electoral proceed ex officio.

- The political parties and electoral alliances must present in their list of candidates for mayor, vice mayor and councilors 50% of men and 50% of women, presented alternately.

- The nomination for the posts of mayor and vice mayor must be based on the principle of the equal and fair treatment of the sexes in the exercise of local power, as one of them must be a woman and the other a man, respecting the proportionality between the two sexes.

- The Supreme Electoral Council shall ensure that the total list of women and men elected at the national level as Mayors, Deputy Mayors and Deputy Mayors is made up of 50% of women and 50% of men.

- If it is not achieved as a direct result of the election, the Supreme Electoral Council will ask the political parties or alliance of political parties that have obtained the election of more than one formula at the national level, to make the necessary adjustments in the list of their elected candidates and elected by inverting the woman-man composition of the formulas that are necessary until achieving a balance of 50% of women and 50% of men among the elected.

Niger

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota (on elected seats obtained by parties)

Rejection of list

- Submitted party lists must include candidates of both sexes.

- The total elected members returned by each party list should not be less than 25% of each sex.

- Any political party that obtains at least three seats must ensure the implementation of the 25% quota requirement.

- If a list fails to meet this quota, the case can be brought before the Constitutional Court.

Norway

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota (with corrective measures to meet targeted quota)

No

- If four or more members are to be elected, each gender must be represented by at least 40% among the proposed candidates on the individual list. If two or three members are to be elected, both sexes must be represented.

- Candidates from the under-represented sex shall move up the list order until the quota requirement is met.

Pakistan

Mixed system:

- Proportional representation (closed list) in Punjab;

- Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post, block vote or single non-transferable vote) in other states

Reserved seats

 

- Number and proportion of reserved seats vary. For some local deliberative bodies, there are no reserved seats.

Papua New Guinea

Majority/

plurality (alternative vote)

Reserved seats for appointed representatives of special groups

 

- In the provincial council, there is one appointed women’s representative nominated by the provincial council of women in the province, or, if there is not one, the joint provincial planning and budget priorities committee for the province nominates three women. One nominee is then appointed by the provincial executive council.

- In the local council, the respective provincial council of women nominates one women's representative (in urban areas) or two women's representatives (in rural areas) to be appointed.

Paraguay

Proportional representation (open list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- The organic charter or statute of the political party must establish the appropriate mechanisms for the promotion of women to elective positions in a percentage not less than 20%.

- In order to guarantee the participation of women in the collegiate bodies to be elected, their internal nomination as candidates must be given at the rate of one woman candidate for every five places on the lists, so that this establishment can appear anywhere but at a ratio of one candidate for every five positions to be elected.

- Political parties, movements, or alliances that do not comply with these provisions in their internal elections will be sanctioned by not registering their lists in the respective electoral courts.

Peru

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota

No

- Each candidate list must be composed of at least 30% men and 30% women.

Philippines

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats for appointed representatives of special groups

 

- One out of the three sectoral representatives in a local deliberative body must be a woman.

Poland

Mixed system:

- Proportional representation (closed list) for regions, counties, county-cities, municipalities of over 20,000 inhabitants, the City of Warsaw, and districts of Warsaw;
- Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) in municipalities of up to 20,000 inhabitants

Candidate quota (partial, applies only to councils elected through proportional representation; with ranking/

placement rule only in counties)

Rejection of candidate list

- For regional, county, city-county, and city district deliberative body elections, the candidate list must be composed of at least 35% of each gender.

- For county council elections, in case of submitting a list containing three candidates, there must be at least one female candidate and one male candidate.

- If a list does not meet this quota requirement, the list must be fixed within three days of notification, or else the list will be refused.

Portugal

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Candidate lists for local deliberative body and local executive body elections must be composed in such a way to ensure parity of women and men. Parity means the representation of at least 40% of each sex.

- No more than two same-sex candidates can be listed consecutively.

- Failure to meet this quota, or to correct the list of candidates within the given time period, will result in the rejection of the entire list.

Republic of Korea

Mixed system:

- Mixed system: majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) and proportional representation (closed list) for provincial-level deliberative bodies;

- Mixed system: majority/

plurality (single non-transferable vote) and proportional representation (closed list) for county-level deliberative bodies

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- For candidates elected using the majority electoral system, at least 30% of the nominees on each party list must be women. Each party must nominate at least one woman nominee per ward.

- For candidates elected using the proportional electoral system, at least 50% of the nominees must be women; odd-numbered nominees on the party list must be women.

- The constituency election commission will reject an application for candidate registration if the quota provisions are violated.

Republic of Moldova

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Candidate lists should be drafted respecting the minimum representation rate of 40% for each sex.

- Four in every ten candidates must be women.

- Lists that do not comply with the quota are not registered by the electoral body.

Republic of North Macedonia

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- In candidate nomination lists for the local deliberative body elections, at least 40% of the candidates must be women, namely: in every third place at least one place is for a woman and, additionally, at least one place in every ten places.

- The Election Commission of the City of Skopje or the respective municipal election commission will reject any list that does not fulfill this quota.

Rwanda

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post):
- City council of Kigali members are elected by and from the district councils within the City of Kigali;
- District council members are elected by and from the sector councils within the respective district;

- Sector council members are directly elected by voters through a majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) system

Reserved seats

 

- In the City Council of Kigali, at least three women members are elected by and from the district and sector councils within the City of Kigali.

- In the district council, one woman and one man are elected from each sector council within the district; at least 30% of district council members are women.

- In each district council and in the City Council of Kigali, there is also a woman coordinator nominated from the National Women’s Council.

- Each bureau of the council must be composed of at least 30% women members. Each executive committee must be composed of at least 30% women members.

Senegal

Mixed system: majority/

plurality (party block vote) and proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Gender parity applies to all candidate lists. Candidate lists must be alternately composed of persons of both sexes. When the number of total candidates is odd, parity applies to the even number immediately below.
- The list of candidates not compliant with provisions on gender parity will not be registered.

Serbia

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- For local deliberative body elections, there must be 40% of the underrepresented gender on the electoral list. Two of each five consecutive candidates must be of the under-represented gender.

- If an electoral list is not in compliance with this requirement and the submitter of the list fails to revise it, the election commission will refuse the proclamation of the list.

Slovenia

Mixed system:

- Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post or block vote) for municipal councils under 12 members;
- Proportional representation (open list) for municipal councils over 12 members

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (in multi-member constituencies)

No

- In multi-member constituencies, each gender must constitute at least 40% of the places on the candidate list.

- Candidates in the first half must alternate by gender. Lists with three total candidates must have at least one of each gender.

South Africa

Mixed system:

-  Proportional representation (closed list) for deliberative bodies with less than 7 members;
- Mixed system: majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) and proportional representation (closed list) for metropolitan municipal councils and local municipalities;
- Mixed system: appointed and proportional representation (closed list) for district municipalities

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (for proportional systems)

No

- In regard to councilors elected using the proportional electoral system, every party must seek to ensure that 50% of the candidates on each list are women and that the candidates of each sex are evenly distributed throughout the list.

Spain

Mixed system:

- Proportional representation (closed list) for municipalities of over 250 inhabitants;
- Majority/

plurality (limited vote) for municipalities of under 250 inhabitants

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- For municipal council elections in municipalities of over 3,000 inhabitants, the lists of candidates must have a balanced proportion of women and men, so that candidates of either sex make up at least 40% of the total membership.

- Where the number of seats is less than five, the ratio between women and men should be as close as possible to an equal balance.

- The same 40% ratio shall be kept in each grouping of five consecutive seats of the whole list. Where the last grouping of consecutive seats is less than five, the ratio of women to men should be as near as possible to an equal balance, provided that the mandatory quota for the whole list is preserved. These quotas also apply to the alternates’ lists.

- Lists that do not comply will be made aware of irregularities and asked to redress them in 48 hours. Lists that do not fulfill the requirements of the Law will not be proclaimed.

Sri Lanka

Mixed system: proportional representation (closed list) and majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Candidate quota (and corrective measures to ensure a targeted representation of women in elected position)

Rejection of candidate list

- Within the party list for the majority-based vote, at least 10% of total nominees must be women.

- Within the party list for the proportional system, at least 50% of total nominees must be women.

- The Election Commission of Sri Lanka can reject any lists that do not comply with these quotas.

- The Election Commissioner oversees that 25% of the total members to be elected and returned from each ward must be women. However, these quotas do not apply if the number of members elected for a local authority exceeds the apportioned amount, and the 25% quota has not yet been met. Furthermore, if a party receives less than 20% of the total number of votes in a local authority and obtains fewer than three seats, the quota does not apply.

 

State of Palestine

Proportional representation (closed list)

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- In the local bodies not exceeding 13 seats, the women's representation should not be less than two seats: one woman shall be among the first five names; one woman shall be among the next five names.

- In the local bodies exceeding 13 seats, a seat shall be allocated for women among the five names;

- Local bodies in which the number of voters is less than 1000 according to the final table of voters are excluded from provisions of paragraph (1) mentioned above. In such a case, the option for selecting places allocated for women among the candidates shall be left for the electoral lists.

- The Central Elections Commission shall reject the registration request of an electoral list if the application did not meet the conditions stipulated in this law.

Timor-Leste

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats

 

- In the suco council, one of the two delegates elected from each aldeia of the suco must be a woman.

- One of the two youth representatives must be a woman. Youth representatives are elected by the suco council at its first meeting.

- For the suco chief election, there must be at least two candidacies, one of which is a woman.

- For the aldeia chief election, there must be at least two candidacies, one of which is a woman.

- The polling station rejects candidacies that do not comply with this quota.

Tunisia

Proportional representation (closed list) for regions and municipalities, and indirect elections for districts

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (partial, applies only to regions and municipalities)

Rejection of candidate list

- For municipal and regional council elections, the candidate lists must be presented on the principle of parity between men and women and the alternate listing of each sex.

- Nominations for the heads of party lists are also presented based on the principle of parity between men and women.

- Lists that do not comply with these rules are inadmissible.

Uganda

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

Reserved seats

 

- 1/3 of the membership of each local government council shall be reserved for women. They shall be directly elected.
- In each local government deliberative body, there shall be a woman councilor directly elected to represent each ward.

- Additionally, from the reserved seats for youth, disabled persons, older persons and workers, one of the two councilors (per category) must be female. These councilors are indirectly elected.

- Additionally, in each local government executive body, at least one of the secretaries must be female.

Ukraine

Mixed system:

- Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post or block vote) for small localities of under 10,000 inhabitants;
- Proportional representation (open list) for localities of over 10,000 inhabitants, regions, districts and cities

Candidate quota (with ranking/

placement rule only in localities of over 10,000 inhabitants, regions, districts and cities)

No

- For localities of under 10,000 voters, representation of persons of the same sex in the electoral lists of candidates for deputies of local councils in multi-member constituencies must be at least 30% of the total number of candidates on the electoral list.

- For localities of over 10,000 voters; regions; cities and districts, party lists should ensure a presence in every five consecutive candidates (places from the first to the fifth, from the sixth to the tenth and so on) of at least two candidates of each sex.

 

United Republic of Tanzania

Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post)

- Reserved seats

- Reserved seats for appointed representatives of special groups for Tanzania Zanzibar

 

- In mainland Tanzania, every political party which contests the local deliberative body election may propose the names of eligible women candidates for nomination to the reserved seats for women to the electoral authority. The list names of women proposed to the electoral authority are in order of preference; the electoral authority declares a such number of women candidates from the respective political parties to be elected. In the district council, the number of reserved seats for women is not less than 1/3 of the total number of elected members, members of the National Assembly, and appointed members in the council. In city, municipal, and town councils, the number of reserved seats for women is not less than 1/3 of the total number of elected members and members of the National Assembly in the council.

- In Tanzania Zanzibar, the municipal, town, and district councils consist of members appointed by the minister responsible for local government, of which 40% must be women.

Uruguay

Proportional representation:

- Proportional representation (closed list with majority bonus) for departments;
- Proportional representation (closed list) for localities

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule

Rejection of candidate list

- Candidates of both sexes must be represented within every three places on the respective candidate list, either throughout the entire list or within the first 15 places. Where only two seats are contested, one of the two candidates must be a woman.

- Lists that fail to comply with the gender quota requirements are rejected by the Electoral Court.

Uzbekistan

Majority/

plurality (two-round system)

Candidate quota

Rejection of candidate list

- At least 30% of candidates nominated by each political party must be women.

- The region, sub-region, or city election commission notifies the head of the respective political party of the discrepancies between the requirements of the Election Code and the documents submitted for registration.

- The political party has the right to correct the discrepancies in the registration documents within two days and submit them to the respective election commission.

Vanuatu

Mixed system:

- Majority/

plurality (single non-transferable vote and first-past-the-post) in Provinces;
- Proportional representation (closed list) in municipalities

- Reserved seats
- Reserved seats for appointed representatives of special groups

 

- In each ward in a municipality, one seat is reserved for a female councilor. The woman candidate who was not declared by the Electoral Commission as the winning candidate for a general seat and who has achieved the highest number of votes from other female candidates in that ward is to be declared by the Electoral Commission as the winning candidate for the reserved seat.

- The Minister may provide for appointed women to each provincial council.

Viet Nam

Majority/

plurality (block vote)

Candidate quota

No

- At least 35% of the total people’s council candidates must be women.

Zimbabwe

Mixed system:

- Proportional representation (closed list) for provincial councils;
- Majority/

plurality (first-past-the-post) for urban and rural councils

Candidate quota with ranking/

placement rule (partial, applies only to directly elected members of provincial councils)

No

- For members of the provincial council elected directly, male and female candidates are listed alternatively and every list is headed by a female candidate.

Note: China, Egypt and South Sudan may also have legislated gender quotas, however, no further information on the type of quota yet.

Source: UN Women review of national legal frameworks as of 1 January 2021.